Session A-7


10:00 AM — 11:30 AM EDT
May 5 Thu, 10:00 AM — 11:30 AM EDT

Connectivity Maintenance in Uncertain Networks under Adversarial Attack

Jianzhi Tang, Luoyi Fu and Jiaxin Ding (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China); Xinbing Wang (Shanghai Jiaotong University, China); Guihai Chen (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China)

This paper studies the problem of connectivity maintenance in adversarial uncertain networks, where a defender prevents the largest connected component from being decomposed by an attacker. In contrast with its deterministic counterpart, connectivity maintenance in an uncertain network involves additional testing on edges to determine their existence. To this end, by modeling a general uncertain network as a random graph with each edge associated with an existence probability and a testing cost, our goal is to design a general adaptive defensive strategy to maximize the expected size of the largest remaining connected component with minimum expected testing cost and, moreover, the strategy should be independent of the attacking patterns. The computational complexity of the connectivity maintenance problem is unraveled by proving its NP-hardness. To accurately tackle the problem, based on dynamic programming we first propose an optimal defensive strategy for a specific class of uncertain networks with uniform testing costs. Thereafter multi-objective optimization is adopted to generalize the optimal strategy for general uncertain networks through weighted sum of normalized size and cost. Due to the prohibitive price of an optimal strategy, two approximate defensive strategies are further designed to pursue decent performance with logarithmic complexity.

FeCo: Boosting Intrusion Detection Capability in IoT Networks via Contrastive Learning

Ning Wang (Virginia Tech, USA); Yimin Chen (University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA); Yang Hu (Virgina Tech, USA); Wenjing Lou and Thomas Hou (Virginia Tech, USA)

Over the last decade, Internet of Things (IoT) has permeated our daily life with a broad range of applications. However, a lack of sufficient security features in IoT devices renders IoT ecosystems vulnerable to various network intrusion attacks, potentially causing severe damage. Previous works have explored using machine learning to build anomaly detection models for defending against such attacks. In this paper, we propose FeCo, a federated-contrastive-learning framework that coordinates in-network IoT devices to jointly learn intrusion detection models. FeCo utilizes federated learning to alleviate users' privacy concerns as participating devices only submit their model parameters rather than local data. Compared to previous works, we develop a novel representation learning method based on contrastive learning that is able to learn a more accurate model for the benign class. FeCo significantly improves the intrusion detection accuracy compared to previous works. Besides, we implement a two-step feature selection scheme to avoid overfitting and reduce computation time. Through extensive experiments on the NSL-KDD dataset, we demonstrate that FeCo achieves as high as 8% accuracy improvement compared to the state-of-the-art and is robust to non-IID data. Evaluations on convergence, computation overhead, and scalability further confirm the suitability of FeCo for IoT intrusion detection.

PhoneyTalker: An Out-of-the-Box Toolkit for Adversarial Example Attack on Speaker Recognition

Meng Chen, Li Lu, Zhongjie Ba and Kui Ren (Zhejiang University, China)

Voice has become a fundamental method for human-computer interactions and person identification these days. Benefit from the rapid development of deep learning, speaker recognition exploiting voice biometrics has achieved great success in various applications. However, the shadow of adversarial example attacks on deep neural network-based speaker recognition recently raised extensive public concerns and enormous research interests. Although existing studies propose to generate adversarial examples by iterative optimization to deceive speaker recognition, these methods require multiple iterations to construct specific perturbations for a single voice, which is input-specific, time-consuming, and non-transferable, hindering the deployment and application for non-professional adversaries. In this paper, we propose PhoneyTalker, an out-of-the-box toolkit for any adversary to generate universal and transferable adversarial examples with low complexity, releasing the requirement for professional background and specialized equipment. PhoneyTalker decomposes an arbitrary voice into phone combinations and generates phone-level perturbations using a generative model, which are reusable for voices from different persons with various texts. By training the generative model with diversified datasets, PhoneyTalker could generalize across different models. Experiments on mainstream speaker recognition systems with large-scale corpus show that PhoneyTalker outperforms state-of-the-art methods with overall attack success rates of 99.9% and 84.0% under white-box and black-box settings respectively.

TrojanFlow: A Neural Backdoor Attack to Deep Learning-based Network Traffic Classifiers

Rui Ning, ChunSheng Xin and Hongyi Wu (Old Dominion University, USA)

This paper reports TrojanFlow, a new and practical neural backdoor attack to DL-based network traffic classifiers. In contrast to traditional neural backdoor attacks where a designated and sample-agnostic trigger is used to plant backdoor, TrojanFlow poisons a model using dynamic and sample-specific triggers that are optimized to efficiently hijack the model. It features a unique design to jointly optimize the trigger generator with the target classifier during training. The trigger generator can thus craft optimized triggers based on the input sample to efficiently manipulate the model's prediction. A well-engineered prototype is developed using Pytorch to demonstrate TrojanFlow attacking multiple practical DL-based network traffic classifiers. Thorough analysis is conducted to gain insights into the effectiveness of TrojanFlow, revealing the fundamentals of why it is effective and what it does to efficiently hijack the model. Extensive experiments are carried out on the well-known ISCXVPN2016 dataset with three widely adopted DL network traffic classifier architectures. TrojanFlow is compared with two other backdoor attacks under five state-of-the-art backdoor defenses. The results show that the TrojanFlow attack is stealthy, efficient, and highly robust against existing neural backdoor mitigation schemes.

Session Chair

Xiaolong Zheng (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications)

Session A-8

Attacks and Security

12:00 PM — 1:30 PM EDT
May 5 Thu, 12:00 PM — 1:30 PM EDT

6Forest: An Ensemble Learning-based Approach to Target Generation for Internet-wide IPv6 Scanning

Tao Yang, Bingnan Hou, Tongqing Zhou and Zhiping Cai (National University of Defense Technology, China)

IPv6 target generation is the critical step for fast IPv6 scanning for Internet-wide surveys. Existing techniques, however, commonly suffer from low hit rates due to inappropriate space partition caused by the outlier addresses and short-sighted splitting indicators. To address the problem, we propose 6Forest, an ensemble learning-based approach for IPv6 target generation that is from a global perspective and resilient to outlier addresses. Given a set of known addresses, 6Forest first considers it as an initial address region and then iteratively divides the IPv6 address space into smaller regions using a maximum-covering splitting indicator. Before a round of space partition, it builds a forest structure for each region and exploits an enhanced isolation forest algorithm to remove the outlier addresses. Finally, it pre-scans samples from the divided address regions and based on the results generates IPv6 addresses. Experiments on eight large-scale candidate datasets indicate that, compared with the state-of-the-art methods in IPv6 worldwide scanning, 6Forest can achieve up to 116.5% improvement for low-budget scanning and 15× improvement for high-budget scanning.

Auter: Automatically Tuning Multi-layer Network Buffers in Long-Distance Shadowsocks Networks

Xu He (George Mason University, USA); Jiahao Cao (Tsinghua University, China); Shu Wang and Kun Sun (George Mason University, USA); Lisong Xu (University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA); Qi Li (Tsinghua University, China)

To bypass network censorship, Shadowsocks is often deployed on long-distance transnational networks; however, such proxy networks are usually plagued by high latency, high packet loss rate, and unstable bandwidth. Most existing tuning solutions rely on hand-tuned heuristics, which cannot work well in the volatile Shadowsocks networks due to the labor intensive and time-consuming properties. In this paper, we propose Auter, which automatically tunes multi-layer buffer parameters with reinforcement learning (RL) to improve the performance of Shadowsocks in long-distance networks. The key insight behind Auter is that different network environments require different sizes of buffers to achieve sufficiently good performance. Hence, Auter continuously learns a tuning policy from volatile network states and dynamically alter sizes of multi-buffers for high network performance. We prototype Auter and evaluate its effectiveness under various real networks. Our experimental results show that Auter can effectively improve network performance, up to 40.5% throughput increase in real networks. Besides, we demonstrate that Auter outperforms all the existing tuning schemes.

FUME: Fuzzing Message Queuing Telemetry Transport Brokers

Bryan Pearson (University of Central Florida, USA); Yue Zhang (Jinan University, China); Cliff Zou (University of Central Florida, USA); Xinwen Fu (University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA)

Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a popular communication protocol used to interconnect devices with considerable network restraints, such as those found in Internet of Things (IoT). MQTT directly impacts thousands of devices, but the software security of its server ("broker") implementations is not well studied. In this paper, we design, implement, and evaluate a novel fuzz testing model for MQTT. The fuzzer combines aspects of mutation guided fuzzing and generation guided fuzzing to rigorously exhaust the MQTT protocol and identify vulnerabilities in servers. We introduce Markov chains for mutation guided fuzzing and generation guided fuzzing that model the fuzzing engine according to a finite Bernoulli process. We implement "response feedback", a novel technique which monitors network and console activity to learn which inputs trigger new responses from the broker. In total, we found 7 major vulnerabilities across 9 different MQTT implementations, including 6 zero-day vulnerabilities and 2 CVEs. We show that when fuzzing these popular MQTT targets, our fuzzer compares favorably with other state-of-the-art fuzzing frameworks, such as BooFuzz and AFLNet.

Large-scale Evaluation of Malicious Tor Hidden Service Directory Discovery

Chunmian Wang, Zhen Ling, Wenjia Wu, Qi Chen and Ming Yang (Southeast University, China); Xinwen Fu (University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA)

Tor is the largest anonymous communication system, providing anonymous communication services to approximately 2.8 million users and 170,000 hidden services per day. The Tor hidden service mechanism can protect a server from exposing its real identity during the communication. However, due to a design flaw of the Tor hidden service mechanism, adversaries can deploy malicious Tor hidden service directories (HSDirs) to covertly collect all onion addresses of hidden services and further probe the hidden services. To mitigate this issue, we design customized honeypot hidden services based on one-to-one and many-to-one HSDir monitoring approaches to luring and identifying the malicious HSDirs conducting the rapid and delayed probing attacks, respectively. By analyzing the probing behaviors and payloads, we investigate a novel semantic-based probing pattern clustering approach to classify the adversaries so as to shed light on the purposes of the malicious HSDirs. Moreover, we perform theoretical analysis of the capability and accuracy of our approaches. Large-scale experiments are conducted in the real-world Tor network by deploying hundreds of thousands of honeypots during a monitoring period of more than three months. Finally, we identify 8 groups of 32 malicious HSDirs, discover 25 probing pattern clusters and reveal 3 major probing purposes.

Session Chair

WenZhan Song (University of Georgia)

Session A-9


2:30 PM — 4:00 PM EDT
May 5 Thu, 2:30 PM — 4:00 PM EDT

Blockchain Based Non-repudiable IoT Data Trading: Simpler, Faster, and Cheaper

Fei Chen, Jiahao Wang and Changkun Jiang (Shenzhen University, China); Tao Xiang (Chongqing University, China); Yuanyuan Yang (Stony Brook University, USA)

Next-generation wireless technology and machine-to-machine technology can provide the ability to connect and share data at any time among IoT smart devices. However, the traditional centralized data sharing/trading mechanism lacks trust guarantee and cannot satisfy the real-time requirement. Distributed systems, especially blockchain, provide us with promising solutions. In this paper, we propose a blockchain based non-repudiation scheme for IoT data trading to resolve the credibility and real-time limits. The proposed scheme has two parts, i.e., a trading scheme and an arbitration scheme. The trading scheme employs a divide-and-conquer method and two commitment methods to support efficient IoT data trading, which runs in a two-round manner. The arbitration scheme first leverages a smart contract to solve disputes on-chain in real time. In case of on-chain arbitration dissatisfaction, the arbitration scheme also employs an off-line arbitration to make a final resolution. Short-term and long-term analysis show that the proposed scheme enforces non-repudiation among the data trading parties and runs efficiently for rational data owners and buyers. We implemented the proposed scheme. Experimental results confirm that the proposed scheme has an orders-of-magnitude performance speedup than the state-of-the-art scheme.

BrokerChain: A Cross-Shard Blockchain Protocol for Account/Balance-based State Sharding

Huawei Huang, Xiaowen Peng, Jianzhou Zhan, Shenyang Zhang and Yue Lin (Sun Yat-Sen University, China); Zibin Zheng (School of Data and Computer Science, Sun Yat-sen University, China); Song Guo (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong)

State-of-the-art blockchain sharding solutions, say Monoxide, can induce imbalanced transaction (TX) distributions among all blockchain shards due to their account deployment mechanisms. Imbalanced TX distributions can then cause hot shards, in which the cross-shard TXs may experience an unlimited length of confirmation latency. Thus, how to address the hot shard issue and how to reduce cross-shard TXs become significant challenges in the context of blockchain state sharding. Through reviewing the related studies, we find that a cross-shard TX protocol that can achieve workload balance among all blockchain shards and simultaneously reduce the number of cross-shard TXs is still absent from the literature. To this end, we propose BrokerChain, which is a cross-shard blockchain protocol devised for the account/balance-based state sharding. Essentially, BrokerChain exploits fine-grained state partition and account segmentation. We also elaborate on how BrokerChain handles the cross-shard TXs through broker accounts. The security issues and other properties of BrokerChain are analyzed substantially. Finally, we conduct comprehensive evaluations using both a real cloud-based prototype and a transaction-driven simulator. The evaluation results show that BrokerChain outperforms the state-of-the-art solutions in terms of system throughput, transaction confirmation latency, the queue size of the transaction pool, and workload balance performance.

S-Store:: A Scalable Data Store towards Permissioned Blockchain Sharding

Xiaodong Qi (East China Normal University, China)

Sharding technique, which divides the whole network into multiple disjoint groups or committees, has been recognized as a revolutionary solution to enhance the scalability of blockchains. For account-based model, state data are partitioned over all committees and organized as Merkle trees to ensure data consistency and immutability. However, existing techniques on Merkle tree-based state storage fail to scale out due to a large amount of network and compute overheads incurred by data migration and Merkle tree reconstruction, respectively. In this paper, we propose S-Store, a scalable data storage technique towards permissioned blockchain sharding based on Aggregate Merkle B+ tree (AMB-tree). S-Store utilizes consistent hashing to reduce data migration among committees and uses split and merge on AMB-tree to decrease Merkle tree reconstruction overheads. S-Store also employs a novel committee addition protocol that guarantees the system service availability during data migration. Extensive experiments show that S-Sotre outperforms existing techniques by one order of magnitude in terms of transaction execution, data transmission, and committee addition.

Optimal Oblivious Routing for Structured Networks

Sucha Supittayapornpong (Vidyasirimedhi Institute of Science and Technology, Thailand); Pooria Namyar (University of Southern California, USA); Mingyang Zhang (University of Science and Technology of China, China); Minlan Yu (Harvard University, USA); Ramesh Govindan (University of Southern California, USA)

Oblivious routing distributes traffic from sources to destinations following predefined routes with rules independent of traffic demands. While finding optimal oblivious routing is intractable for general topologies, we show it is tractable for structured topologies often used in datacenter networks. In this work, we apply graph automorphism and prove the existence of the optimal automorphism-invariant solution. This result reduces the search space to targeting the optimal automorphism-invariant solution. We design an iterative algorithm to obtain such a solution by alternating between two linear programs. The first program finds an automorphism-invariant solution based on representative variables and constraints, making the problem tractable. The second program generates adversarial demands to ensure the final result satisfies all possible traffic demands. The construction of the representative variables and constraints are combinatorial problems, so we design polynomial-time algorithms for the construction. The proposed iterative algorithm is evaluated in terms of throughput performance, scalability, and generality over three potential applications. The algorithm i) improves the throughput up to 87.5% over a heuristic algorithm for partially deployed FatTree, ii) scales for FatClique with a thousand switches, iii) is applicable for a general structured topology with non-uniform link capacity and server distribution.

Session Chair

Guiling Wang (New Jersey Institute of Technology)

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