Session A-7

Video Streaming

10:00 AM — 11:30 AM EDT
May 13 Thu, 10:00 AM — 11:30 AM EDT

Towards Video Streaming Analysis and Sharing for Multi-Device Interaction with Lightweight DNNs

Yakun Huang, Hongru Zhao and Xiuquan Qiao (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China); Jian Tang (Syracuse University, USA); Ling Liu (Georgia Tech, USA)

Multi-device interaction has attracted a growing interest in both mobile communication industry and mobile computing research community as mobile devices enabled social media and social networking continue to blossom. However, due to the stringent low latency requirements and the complexity and intensity of computation, implementing efficient multi-device interaction for real-time video streaming analysis and sharing is still in its infancy. Unlike previous approaches that rely on high network bandwidth and high availability of cloud center with GPUs to support intensive computations for multi-device interaction and for improving the service experience, we propose MIRSA, a novel edge centric multi-device interaction framework with a lightweight end-to-end DNN for on-device visual odometry (VO) streaming analysis by leveraging edge computing optimizations with three main contributions. First, we design MIRSA to migrate computations from the cloud to the device side, reducing the high overhead for large transmission of video streaming while alleviating the server load of the cloud. Second, we design a lightweight VO network by utilizing temporal shift module to support on-device pose estimation. Third, we provide on-device resource-aware scheduling algorithm to optimize the task allocation. Extensive experiments show MIRSA provides real-time high quality pose estimation as an interactive service and outperforms baseline methods.

AMIS: Edge Computing Based Adaptive Mobile Video Streaming

Phil K Mu, Jinkai Zheng, Tom H. Luan and Lina Zhu (Xidian University, China); Zhou Su (Shanghai University, China); Mianxiong Dong (Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan)

This work proposes AMIS, an edge computing-based adaptive video streaming system. AMIS explores the power of edge computing in three aspects. First, with video contents pre-cached in the local buffer, AMIS is content-aware which adapts the video playout strategy based on the scene features of video contents and quality of experience (QoE) of users. Second, AMIS is channel-aware which measures the channel conditions in real-time and estimates the wireless bandwidth. Third, by integrating the content features and channel estimation, AMIS applies the deep reinforcement learning model to optimize the playout strategy towards the best QoE. Therefore, AMIS is an intelligent content- and channel-aware scheme which fully explores the intelligence of edge computing and adapts to general environments and QoE requirements. Using trace-driven simulations, we show that AMIS can succeed in improving the average QoE by 14%-46% as compared to the state-of-the-art adaptive bitrate algorithms.

Robust 360◦ Video Streaming via Non-Linear Sampling

Mijanur R Palash, Voicu Popescu, Amit Sheoran and Sonia Fahmy (Purdue University, USA)

We propose CoRE, a 360 ◦ video streaming approach that reduces bandwidth requirements compared to transferring the entire 360 ◦ video. CoRE uses non-linear sampling in both the spatial and temporal domains to achieve robustness to view direction prediction error and to transient wireless network bandwidth fluctuation. Each CoRE frame samples the environment in all directions, with full resolution over the predicted field of view and gradually decreasing resolution at the periphery, so that missing pixels are avoided, irrespective of the view prediction error magnitude. A CoRE video chunk has a main part at full frame rate, and an extension part at a gradually decreasing frame rate, which avoids stalls while waiting for a delayed transfer. We evaluate a prototype implementation of CoRE through trace-based experiments and a user study, and find that, compared to tiling with low-resolution padding, CoRE reduces data transfer amounts, stalls, and H.264 decoding overhead, increases frame rates, and eliminates missing pixels.

Popularity-Aware 360-Degree Video Streaming

Xianda Chen, Tianxiang Tan and Guohong Cao (The Pennsylvania State University, USA)

Tile-based streaming techniques have been widely used to save bandwidth in 360 ◦ video streaming. However, it is a challenge to determine the right tile size which directly affects the bandwidth usage. To address this problem, we propose to encode the video by considering the viewing popularity, where the popularly viewed areas are encoded as macrotiles to save bandwidth. We propose techniques to identify and build macrotiles, and adjust their sizes considering practical issues such as head movement randomness. In some cases, a user's viewing area may not be covered by the constructed macrotiles, and then the conventional tiling scheme is used. To support popularity-aware 360 ◦ video streaming, the client selects the right tiles (a macrotile or a set of conventional tiles) with the right quality level to maximize the QoE under bandwidth constraint. We formulate this problem as an optimization problem which is NP-hard, and then propose a heuristic algorithm to solve it. Through extensive evaluations based on real traces, we demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the QoE and save the bandwidth usage.

Session Chair

Yusheng Ji (National Institute of Informatics, Japan)

Session A-8


12:00 PM — 1:30 PM EDT
May 13 Thu, 12:00 PM — 1:30 PM EDT

Launching Smart Selective Jamming Attacks in WirelessHART Networks

Xia Cheng, Junyang Shi and Mo Sha (State University of New York at Binghamton, USA); Linke Guo (Clemson University, USA)

As a leading industrial wireless standard, WirelessHART has been widely implemented to build wireless sensor-actuator networks (WSANs) in industrial facilities, such as oil refineries, chemical plants, and factories. For instance, 54,835 WSANs that implement the WirelessHART standard have been deployed globally by Emerson process management, a WirelessHART network supplier, to support process automation. While the existing research to improve industrial WSANs focuses mainly on enhancing network performance, the security aspects have not been given enough attention. We have identified a new threat to WirelessHART networks, namely smart selective jamming attacks, where the attacker first cracks the channel usage, routes, and parameter configuration of the victim network and then jams the transmissions of interest on their specific communication channels in their specific time slots, which makes the attacks energy efficient and hardly detectable. In this paper, we present this severe, stealthy threat by demonstrating the step-by-step attack process on a 50-node network that runs a publicly accessible WirelessHART implementation. Experimental results show that the smart selective jamming attacks significantly reduce the network reliability without triggering network updates.

Your Home is Insecure: Practical Attacks on Wireless Home Alarm Systems

Tao Li (IUPUI, USA); Dianqi Han, Jiawei Li, Ang Li and Yan Zhang (Arizona State University, USA); Rui Zhang (University of Delaware, USA); Yanchao Zhang (Arizona State University, USA)

Wireless home alarm systems are being widely deployed, but their security has not been well studied. Existing attacks on wireless home alarm systems exploit the vulnerabilities of networking protocols while neglecting the problems arising from the physical component of IoT devices. In this paper, we present new event-eliminating and event-spoofing attacks on commercial wireless home alarm systems by interfering with the reed switch in almost all COTS alarm sensors. In both attacks,
the external adversary uses his own magnet to control the state of the reed switch in order to either eliminate legitimate alarms or spoof false alarms. We also present a new battery-depletion attack with programmable electromagnets to deplete the alarm
sensor's battery quickly and stealthily in hours which is expected to last a few years. The efficacy of our attacks is confirmed by detailed experiments on a representative Ring alarm system.

Tornadoes In The Cloud: Worst-Case Attacks on Distributed Resources Systems

Jhonatan Tavori and Hanoch Levy (Tel Aviv University, Israel)

Geographically distributed cloud networks are used by a variety of applications and services worldwide. As the demand for these services increases, their data centers form an attractive target for malicious attackers, aiming at harming the services. In this study we address sophisticated attackers who aim at causing maximal-damage to the service.

A worst-case (damage-maximizing) attack is an attack which minimizes the revenue of the system operator, due to disrupting the users from being served. A sophisticated attacker needs to decide how many attacking agents should be launched at each of the systems regions, in order to inflict maximal damage.

We characterize and analyze damage-maximization strategies for a number of attacks including deterministic attack, concurrent stochastic agents attack, approximation of a virus-spread attack and over-size binomial attack. We also address user-migration defense, allowing to dynamically migrate demands among regions, and we provide efficient algorithms for deriving worst-case attacks given a system with arbitrary placement and demands. The results form a basis for devising resource allocation strategies aiming at minimizing attack damages.

Invisible Poison: A Blackbox Clean Label Backdoor Attack to Deep Neural Networks

Rui Ning, Jiang Li, ChunSheng Xin and Hongyi Wu (Old Dominion University, USA)

This paper reports a new clean-label data poisoning backdoor attack, named Invisible Poison, which stealthily and aggressively plants a backdoor in neural networks. It converts a regular trigger to a noised trigger that can be easily concealed inside images for training NN, with the objective to plant a backdoor that can be later activated by the trigger. Compared with existing data poisoning backdoor attacks, this newfound attack has the following distinct properties. First, it is a black-box attack, requiring zero-knowledge of the target model. Second, this attack utilizes "invisible poison" to achieve stealthiness where the trigger is disguised as 'noise', and thus can easily evade human inspection. On the other hand, this noised trigger remains effective in the feature space to poison training data. Third, the attack is practical and aggressive. A backdoor can be effectively planted with a small amount of poisoned data and is robust to most data augmentation methods during training. The attack is fully tested on multiple benchmark datasets including MNIST, Cifar10, and ImageNet10, as well as application-specific data sets such as Yahoo Adblocker and GTSRB. Two countermeasures, namely Supervised and Unsupervised Poison Sample Detection, are introduced to defend the attack.

Session Chair

Ruozhou Yu (North Carlolina State University)

Session A-9

Attack and Anomaly Detection

2:30 PM — 4:00 PM EDT
May 13 Thu, 2:30 PM — 4:00 PM EDT

MANDA: On Adversarial Example Detection for Network Intrusion Detection System

Ning Wang (Virginia Tech, USA); Yimin Chen (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA); Yang Hu (Virgina Tech, USA); Wenjing Lou and Thomas Hou (Virginia Tech, USA)

With the rapid advancement in machine learning (ML), ML-based Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are widely deployed to protect networks from various attacks. Yet one of the biggest challenges is that ML-based IDSs suffer from adversarial example (AE) attacks. By applying small perturbations (e.g. slightly increasing packet inter-arrival time) to the intrusion traffic, an AE attack can flip the prediction of a well-trained IDS. We address this challenge by proposing MANDA, a MANifold and Decision boundary-based AE detection system. Through analyzing AE attacks, we notice that 1) an AE tends to be close to its original manifold (i.e., the cluster of samples in its original class) regardless which class it is misclassified into; and 2) AEs tend to be close to the decision boundary so as to minimize the perturbation scale. Based on the two observations, we design MANDA for accurate AE detection by exploiting inconsistency between manifold evaluation and IDS model inference and evaluating model uncertainty on small perturbations. We evaluate MANDA on NSL-KDD under three state-of-the-art AE attacks. Our experimental results show that MANDA achieves as high as 98.41% true-positive rate with 5% false-positive rate and can be applied to other problem spaces such as image recognition.

Detecting Localized Adversarial Examples: A Generic Approach using Critical Region Analysis

Fengting Li, Xuankai Liu, XiaoLi Zhang and Qi Li (Tsinghua University, China); Kun Sun (George Mason University, USA); Kang Li (University of Georgia, USA)

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been applied in a wide range of applications, e.g., face recognition and image classification; however, they are vulnerable to adversarial examples. By adding a small amount of imperceptible perturbations, an attacker can easily manipulate the outputs of a DNN. Particularly, the localized adversarial examples only perturb a small and contiguous region of the target object, so that they are robust and effective in both digital and physical worlds. Although the localized adversarial examples have more severe real-world impacts than traditional pixel attacks, they have not been well addressed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a generic defense system called TaintRadar to accurately detect localized adversarial examples via analyzing critical regions that have been manipulated by attackers. The main idea is that when removing critical regions from input images, the ranking changes of adversarial labels will be larger than those of benign labels. Compared with existing defense solutions, TaintRadar can effectively capture sophisticated localized partial attacks, e.g., the eye-glasses attack, while not requiring additional training or fine-tuning of the original model's structure. Comprehensive experiments have been conducted in both digital and physical worlds to verify the effectiveness and robustness of our defense.

Towards Cross-Modal Forgery Detection and Localization on Live Surveillance Videos

Yong Huang, Xiang Li, Wei Wang and Tao Jiang (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China); Qian Zhang (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong)

The cybersecurity breaches render surveillance systems vulnerable to video forgery attacks, under which authentic live video streams are tampered to conceal illegal human activities under surveillance cameras. Traditional video forensics approaches can detect and localize forgery traces in each video frame using computationally-expensive spatial-temporal analysis, while falling short in real-time verification of live video feeds. The recent work correlates time-series camera and wireless signals to recognize replayed surveillance videos using event-level timing information but it cannot realize fine-grained forgery detection and localization on each frame. To fill this gap, this paper proposes Secure-Pose, a novel cross-modal forgery detection and localization system for live surveillance videos using WiFi signals near the camera spot. We observe that coexisting camera and WiFi signals convey common human semantic information and the presence of forgery attacks on video frames will decouple such information correspondence. Secure-Pose extracts effective human pose features from synchronized multi-modal signals and detects and localizes forgery traces under both inter-frame and intra-frame attacks in each frame. We implement Secure-Pose using a commercial camera and two Intel 5300 NICs and evaluate it in real-world environments. Secure-Pose achieves a high detection accuracy of 95.1% and can effectively localize tampered objects under different forgery attacks.

CTF: Anomaly Detection in High-Dimensional Time Series with Coarse-to-Fine Model Transfer

Ming Sun and Ya Su (Tsinghua University, China); Shenglin Zhang, Yuanpu Cao and Yuqing Liu (Nankai University, China); Dan Pei and Wenfei Wu (Tsinghua University, China); Yongsu Zhang, Xiaozhou Liu and Junliang Tang (ByteDance, China)

Anomaly detection is indispensable in modern IT infrastructure management. However, the dimension explosion problem of the monitoring data (large-scale machines, many key performance indicators, and frequent monitoring queries) causes a scalability issue to the existing algorithms. We propose a coarse-to-fine model transfer based framework CTF to achieve a scalable and accurate data-center-scale anomaly detection. CTF pre-trains a coarse-grained model, uses the model to extract and compress per-machine features to a distribution, clusters machines according to the distribution, and conducts model transfer to fine-tune per-cluster models for high accuracy. The framework takes advantage of clustering on the per-machine latent representation distribution, reusing the pre-trained model, and partial-layer model fine-tuning to boost the whole training efficiency. We also justify design choices such as the clustering algorithm and distance algorithm to achieve the best accuracy. We prototype CTF and experiment on production data to show its scalability and accuracy. We also release a labeling tool for multivariate time series and a labeled dataset to the research community.

Session Chair

Tony Luo (Missouri Univ. Science and Technology)

Session A-10


4:30 PM — 6:00 PM EDT
May 13 Thu, 4:30 PM — 6:00 PM EDT

Bipartite Graph Matching Based Secret Key Generation

Hongbo Liu (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China); Yan Wang (Temple University, USA); Yanzhi Ren (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China); Yingying Chen (Rutgers University, USA)

The physical layer secret key generation exploiting wireless channel reciprocity has attracted considerable attention in the past two decades. On-going research have demonstrated its viability in various radio frequency (RF) systems. Most of existing work rely on quantization technique to convert channel measurements into digital binaries that are suitable for secret key generation. However, non-simultaneous packet exchanges in time division duplex systems and noise effects in practice usually create random channel measurements between two users, leading to inconsistent quantization results and mismatched secret bits. While significant efforts were spent in recent research to mitigate such non-reciprocity, no efficient method has been found yet. Unlike existing quantization-based approaches, we take a different viewpoint and perform the secret key agreement by solving a bipartite graph matching problem. Specifically, an efficient dual-permutation secret key generation method, DP-SKG, is developed to match the randomly permuted channel measurements between a pair of users by minimizing their discrepancy holistically. DP-SKG allows two users to generate the same secret key based on the permutation order of channel measurements despite the non-reciprocity over wireless channels. Extensive experimental results show that DP-SKG could achieve error-free key agreement on received signal strength (RSS) with a low cost under various scenarios.

ScreenID: Enhancing QRCode Security by Fingerprinting Screens

Yijie Li and Yi-Chao Chen (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China); Xiaoyu Ji (Zhejiang University, China); Hao Pan, Lanqing Yang, Guangtao Xue and Jiadi Yu (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China)

Quick response (QR) codes have been widely used in mobile applications due to its convenience and the pervasive built-in cameras on smartphones. Recently, however, attacks against QR codes have been reported that attackers can capture a QR code of the victim and replay it to achieve a fraudulent transaction or intercept private information, just before the original QR code is scanned. In this study, we enhance the security of a QR code by identifying its authenticity. We propose SCREENID, which embeds a QR code with information of the screen which displays it, thereby the QR code can reveal whether it is reproduced by an adversary or not. In SCREENID, PWM frequency of screens is exploited as the unique screen fingerprint. To improve the estimation accuracy of PWM frequency, SCREENID incorporates a model for the interaction between the camera and screen in the temporal and spatial domains. Extensive experiments demonstrate that SCREENID can differentiate screens of different models, types, and manufacturers, thus improve the security of QR codes.

Prison Break of Android Reflection Restriction and Defense

Zhen Ling and Ruizhao Liu (Southeast University, China); Yue Zhang (Jinan University, China); Kang Jia (Southeast University, China); Bryan Pearson (University of Central Florida, USA); Xinwen Fu (University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA); Luo Junzhou (Southeast University, China)

Java reflection technique is pervasively used in the Android system. To reduce the risk of reflection abuse, Android restricts the use of reflection at the Android Runtime (ART) to hide potentially dangerous methods/fields. We perform the first comprehensive study of the reflection restrictions and have discovered three novel approaches to bypass the reflection restrictions. Novel reflection-based attacks are also presented, including the password stealing attack. To mitigate the threats, we analyze these restriction bypassing approaches and find three techniques crucial to these approaches, i.e., double reflection, memory manipulation, and inline hook. We propose a defense mechanism that consists of classloader double checker, ART variable protector, and ART method protector, to prohibit the reflection restriction bypassing. Finally, we design and implement an automatic reflection detection framework and have discovered 5,531 reflection powered apps out of 100,000 downloaded apps, which are installed on our defense enabled Android system of a Google Pixel 2 to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our defense mechanism. Extensive empirical experiment results demonstrate that our defense enabled system can accurately obstruct the malicious reflection attempts.

Counter-Collusion Smart Contracts for Watchtowers in Payment Channel Networks

Yuhui Zhang and Dejun Yang (Colorado School of Mines, USA); Guoliang Xue (Arizona State University, USA); Ruozhou Yu (North Carolina State University, USA)

Payment channel networks (PCNs) are proposed to improve the cryptocurrency scalability by settling off-chain transactions. However, PCN introduces an undesirable assumption that a channel participant must stay online and be synchronized with the blockchain to defend against frauds. To alleviate this issue, watchtowers have been introduced, such that a hiring party can employ a watchtower to monitor the channel for fraud. However, a watchtower might profit from colluding with a cheating counterparty and fail to perform this job. Existing solutions either focus on heavy cryptographic techniques or require a large collateral. In this work, we leverage smart contracts through economic approaches to counter collusions for watchtowers in PCNs. This brings distrust between the watchtower and the counterparty, so that rational parties do not collude or cheat. We provide detailed analyses on the contracts and rigorously prove that the contracts are effective to counter collusions with minimal on-chain operations. In particular, a watchtower only needs to lock a small collateral, which incentivizes participation of watchtowers and users. We also provide an implementation of the contracts in Solidity and execute them on Ethereum to demonstrate the scalability and efficiency of the contracts.

Session Chair

Satyajayant Misra (New Mexico State University)

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