Session G-1


2:00 PM — 3:30 PM EDT
May 11 Tue, 2:00 PM — 3:30 PM EDT

A Lightweight Integrity Authentication Approach for RFID-enabled Supply Chains

Xin Xie (Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong); Xiulong Liu (Tianjin University, China); Song Guo (Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong); Heng Qi (Dalian University of Technology, China); Keqiu Li (Tianjin University, China)

Major manufacturers and retailers are increasingly using RFID systems in supply-chain scenarios, where theft of goods during transport typically causes significant economic losses for the consumer. Recent sample-based authentication methods attempt to use a small set of random sample tags to authenticate the integrity of the entire tag population, which significantly reduces the authentication time at the expense of slightly reduced reliability. The problem is that it still incurs extensive initialization overhead when writing the authentication information to all of the tags. This paper presents KTAuth, a lightweight integrity authentication approach to efficiently and reliably detect missing tags and counterfeit tags caused by stolen attacks. The competitive advantage of KTAuth is that it only requires writing the authentication information to a small set of deterministic key tags, offering a significant reduction in initialization costs. In addition, KTAuth strictly follows the C1G2 specifications and thus can be deployed on Commercial-Off-The-Shelf RFID systems. Furthermore, KTAuth proposes a novel authentication chain mechanism to verify the integrity of tags exclusively based on data stored on them. To evaluate the feasibility and deployability of KTAuth, we implemented a small-scale prototype system using mainstream RFID devices. Using the parameters achieved from the real experiments, we also conducted extensive simulations to evaluate the performance of KTAuth in large-scale RFID systems.

RFace: Anti-Spoofing Facial Authentication Using COTS RFID

Weiye Xu (Zhejiang University, China); Jianwei Liu (Zhejiang University & Xi'an Jiaotong University, China); Shimin Zhang (Zhejiang University, China); Yuanqing Zheng (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong); Feng Lin (Zhejiang University, China); Jinsong Han (Zhejiang University & School of Cyber Science and Technology, China); Fu Xiao (Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China); Kui Ren (Zhejiang University, China)

Current facial authentication (FA) systems are mostly based on the images of human faces, thus suffering from privacy leakage and spoofing attacks. Mainstream systems utilize facial geometry features for spoofing mitigation, which are still easy to deceive with the feature manipulation, e.g., 3D-printed human faces. In this paper, we propose a novel privacy-preserving anti-spoofing FA system, named RFace, which extracts both the 3D geometry and inner biomaterial features of faces using a COTS RFID tag array. These features are difficult to obtain and forge, hence are resistant to spoofing attacks. RFace only requires users to pose their faces in front of a tag array for a few seconds, without leaking their visual facial information. We build a theoretical model to rigorously prove the feasibility of feature acquisition and the correlation between the facial features and RF signals. For practicality, we design an effective algorithm to mitigate the impact of unstable distance and angle deflection from the face to the array. Extensive experiments with 30 participants and three types of spoofing attacks show that RFace achieves an average authentication success rate of over 95.7% and an EER of 4.4%. More importantly, no spoofing attack succeeds in deceiving RFace in the experiments.

Proximity-Echo: Secure Two Factor Authentication Using Active Sound Sensing

Yanzhi Ren, Ping Wen, Hongbo Liu and Zhourong Zheng (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China); Yingying Chen (Rutgers University, USA); Pengcheng Huang and Hongwei Li (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China)

The two-factor authentication (2FA) has drawn increasingly attention as the mobile devices become more prevalent. For example, the user's possession of the enrolled phone could be used by the 2FA system as the second proof to protect his/her online accounts. Existing 2FA solutions mainly require some form of user-device interaction, which may severely affect user experience and creates extra burdens to users. In this work, we propose Proximity-Echo, a secure 2FA system utilizing the proximity of a user's enrolled phone and the login device as the second proof without requiring the user's interactions or pre-constructed device fingerprints. The basic idea of Proximity-Echo is to derive location signatures based on acoustic beep signals emitted alternately by both devices and sensing the echoes with microphones, and compare the extracted signatures for proximity detection. Given the received beep signal, our system designs a period selection scheme to identify two sound segments accurately: the chirp period is the sound segment propagating directly from the speaker to the microphone whereas the echo period is the sound segment reflected back by surrounding objects. To achieve an accurate proximity detection, we develop a new energy loss compensation extraction scheme by utilizing the extracted chirp periods to estimate the intrinsic differences of energy loss between microphones of the enrolled phone and the login device. Our proximity detection component then conducts the similarity comparison between the identified two echo periods after the energy loss compensation to effectively determine whether the enrolled phone and the login device are in proximity for 2FA. Our experimental results show that our Proximity-Echo is accurate in providing 2FA and robust to both man-in-the-middle (MiM) and co-located attacks across different scenarios and device models.

Privacy Preserving and Resilient RPKI

Kris Shrishak (Technische Universit├Ąt Darmstadt, Germany); Haya Shulman (Fraunhofer SIT, Germany)

Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) is vital to the security of inter-domain routing. However, RPKI enables Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) to unilaterally takedown IP prefixes - indeed, such attacks have been launched by nation-state adversaries. The threat of IP prefix takedowns is one of the factors hindering RPKI adoption.

In this work, we propose the first distributed RPKI system, based on threshold signatures, that requires the coordination of a number of RIRs to make changes to RPKI objects; hence, preventing unilateral prefix takedown. We perform extensive evaluations using our implementation demonstrating the practicality of our solution. Furthermore, we show that our system is scalable and remains efficient even when RPKI is widely deployed.

Session Chair

Imad Jawhar (Al Maaref University)

Session G-2


4:00 PM — 5:30 PM EDT
May 11 Tue, 4:00 PM — 5:30 PM EDT

Pyramid: A Layered Sharding Blockchain System

Zicong Hong (Sun Yat-sen University, China); Song Guo (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong); Peng Li (The University of Aizu, Japan); Chen Wuhui (Sun Yat-sen university, China)

Sharding can significantly improve the blockchain scalability, by dividing nodes into small groups called shards that can handle transactions in parallel. However, all existing sharding systems adopt complete sharding, i.e., shards are isolated. It raises additional overhead to guarantee the atomicity and consistency of cross-shard transactions and seriously degrades the sharding performance. In this paper, we present Pyramid, the first layered sharding blockchain system, in which some shards can store the full records of multiple shards thus the cross-shard transactions can be processed and validated in these shards internally. When committing cross-shard transactions, to achieve consistency among the related shards, a layered sharding consensus based on the collaboration among several shards is presented. Compared with complete sharding in which each cross-shard transaction is split into multiple sub-transactions and cost multiple consensus rounds to commit, the layered sharding consensus can commit cross-shard transactions in one round. Furthermore, the security, scalability, and performance of layered sharding with different sharding structures are theoretically analyzed. Finally, we implement a prototype for Pyramid and its evaluation results illustrate that compared with the state-of-the-art complete sharding systems, Pyramid can improve the transaction throughput by 2.95 times in a system with 17 shards and 3500 nodes.

Leveraging Public-Private Blockchain Interoperability for Closed Consortium Interfacing

Bishakh Chandra Ghosh and Tanay Bhartia (Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India); Sourav Kanti Addya (National Institute of Technology Karnataka, India); Sandip Chakraborty (Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India)

With the increasing adoption of private blockchain platforms, consortia operating in various sectors such as trade, finance, logistics, etc., are becoming common. Despite having the benefits of a completely decentralized architecture which supports transparency and distributed control, existing private blockchains limit the data, assets, and processes within its closed boundary, which restricts secure and verifiable service provisioning to the end-consumers. Thus, platforms such as e-commerce with multiple sellers or cloud federation with a collection of cloud service providers cannot be decentralized with the existing blockchain platforms. This paper proposes a decentralized gateway architecture interfacing private blockchain with end-users by leveraging the unique combination of public and private blockchain platforms through interoperation. Through the use case of decentralized cloud federations, we have demonstrated the viability of the solution. Our testbed implementation with Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric, with three service providers, shows that such consortium can operate within an acceptable response latency while scaling up to 64 parallel requests per second for cloud infrastructure provisioning. Further analysis over the Mininet emulation platform indicates that the platform can scale well with minimal impact over the latency as the number of participating service providers increases.

A Weak Consensus Algorithm and Its Application to High-Performance Blockchain

Qin Wang (Swinburne University of Technology, Australia & HPB Foundation, Singapore); Rujia Li (Southern University of Science and Technology, China & University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

A large number of consensus algorithms have been proposed. However, the requirement of strict consistency limits their wide adoption, especially in high-performance required systems. In this paper, we propose a weak consensus algorithm that only maintains the consistency of relative positions between the messages. We apply this consensus algorithm to construct a high-performance blockchain system, called Sphinx. We implement the system with 32k+ lines of code including all components like consensus/P2P/ledger/etc. The evaluations show that Sphinx can reach a peak throughput of 43k TPS (with 8 full nodes), which is significantly faster than current blockchain systems such as Ethereum given the same experimental environment. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first weak consensus algorithm with a fully implemented blockchain system.

Code is the (F)Law: Demystifying and Mitigating Blockchain Inconsistency Attacks Caused by Software Bugs

Guorui Yu (Peking University, China); Shibin Zhao (State Key Laboratory of Mathematical Engineering and Advanced Computing, China); Chao Zhang (Institute for Network Sciences and Cyberspace, Tsinghua University, China); Zhiniang Peng (Qihoo 360 Core Security, China); Yuandong Ni (Institute for Network Science and Cyberspace of Tsinghua University, China); Xinhui Han (Peking University, China)

Blockchains promise to provide a tamper-proof medium for transactions, and thus enable many applications including cryptocurrency. As a system built on consensus, the correctness of a blockchain heavily relies on the consistency of states between its nodes. But consensus protocols of blockchains only guarantee the consistency in the transaction sequence rather than nodes' internal states. Instead, nodes must replay and execute all transactions to maintain their local states independently. When executing transactions, any different execution result could cause a node out-of-sync and thus gets isolated from other nodes. After systematically modeling the transaction execution process in blockchains, we present a new attack INCITE, which can lead different nodes to different states. Specifically, attackers could invoke an ambiguous transaction of a vulnerable smart contract, utilize software bugs in smart contracts to lead nodes that execute this transaction into different states. Unlike attacks that bring short-term inconsistencies, such as fork attacks, INCITE can cause nodes in the blockchain to fall into a long-term inconsistent state, which further leads to great damages to the chain (e.g., double-spending attacks and expelling mining power). We have discovered 7 0day vulnerabilities in 5 popular blockchains which can enable this attack. We also proposed a defense solution to mitigate this threat. Experiments showed that it is effective and lightweight.

Session Chair

Donghyun Kim (Georgia State University)

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