Session F-1

Edge Computing

2:00 PM — 3:30 PM EDT
May 11 Tue, 2:00 PM — 3:30 PM EDT

Layer Aware Microservice Placement and Request Scheduling at the Edge

Lin Gu (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China); Deze Zeng (China University of Geosciences, China); Jie Hu (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China); Bo Li (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong); Hai Jin (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China)

Container-based microservice has emerged as a promising technique in promoting edge computing elasticity. At the runtime, microservices, encapsulated in form of container images, need to be frequently downloaded from remote registries to local edge servers, which may incur significant overhead in terms of excessive download traffic and large local storage. Given the limited resources at the edge, it is of critical importance to minimize such overhead in order to enhance microservice offerings. A distinctive feature in container-based microservice, which has not been exploited, is that microservice images are in layered structure and common layers can be shared by co-located microservices. In this paper, we study a layer aware microservice placement and request scheduling at the edge. Intuitively, throughput and number of hosted microservices can be significantly increased by layer sharing between co-located images. We formulate this into an optimization problem with approximate submodularity, and prove this to be NP-hard. We design an iterative greedy algorithm with guaranteed approximation ratio. Extensive experiments validate the efficiency of our method, and the results demonstrate that the number of placed microservices can be increased by 27.61% and the microservice throughput can be improved by 73.13%, respectively, in comparison with the state-of-the-art microservice placement strategy.

Trust Trackers for Computation Offloading in Edge-Based IoT Networks

Matthew Bradbury, Arshad Jhumka and Tim Watson (University of Warwick, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Wireless Internet of Things (IoT) devices will be deployed to enable applications such as sensing and actuation. These devices are typically resource-constrained and are unable to perform resource-intensive computations. Therefore, these jobs need to be offloaded to resource-rich nodes at the edge of the IoT network for execution. However, the timeliness and correctness of edge nodes may not be trusted (such as during high network load or attack). In this paper, we look at the applicability of trust for successful offloading. Traditionally, trust is computed at the application level, with suitable mechanisms to adjust for factors such as recency. However, these do not work well in IoT networks due to resource constraints. We propose a novel device called Trust Tracker (denoted by Σ) that provides higher-level applications with up-to-date trust information of the resource-rich nodes. We prove impossibility results regarding computation offloading and show that Σ is necessary and sufficient for correct offloading. We show that, Σ cannot be implemented even in a synchronous network and we compute the probability of offloading to a bad node, which we show to be negligible when a majority of nodes are correct. We perform a small-scale deployment to demonstrate our approach.

Let's Share VMs: Optimal Placement and Pricing across Base Stations in MEC Systems

Marie Siew (SUTD, Singapore); Kun Guo (Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore); Desmond Cai (Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore); Lingxiang Li (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China); Tony Q. S. Quek (Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore)

In mobile edge computing (MEC) systems, users offload computationally intensive tasks to edge servers at base stations. However, with unequal demand across the network, there might be excess demand at some locations and underutilized resources at other locations. To address such load-unbalanced problem in MEC systems, in this paper we propose virtual machines (VMs) sharing across base stations. Specifically, we consider the joint VM placement and pricing problem across base stations to match demand and supply and maximize revenue at the network level. To make this problem tractable, we decompose it into master and slave problems. For the placement master problem, we propose a Markov approximation algorithm MAP on the design of a continuous time Markov chain. As for the pricing slave problem, we propose OPA - an optimal VM pricing auction, where all users are truthful. Furthermore, given users' potential untruthful behaviors, we propose an incentive compatible auction iCAT along with a partitioning mechanism PUFF, for which we prove incentive compatibility and revenue guarantees. Finally, we combine MAP and OPA or PUFF to solve the original problem, and analyze the optimality gap. Simulation results show that collaborative base stations increases revenue by up to 50%.

Tailored Learning-Based Scheduling for Kubernetes-Oriented Edge-Cloud System

Yiwen Han, Shihao Shen and Xiaofei Wang (Tianjin University, China); Shiqiang Wang (IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, USA); Victor C.M. Leung (University of British Columbia, Canada)

Kubernetes (k8s) has the potential to merge the distributed edge and the cloud but lacks a scheduling framework specifically for edge-cloud systems. Besides, the hierarchical distribution of heterogeneous resources and the complex dependencies among requests and resources make the modeling and scheduling of k8s-oriented edge-cloud systems particularly sophisticated. In this paper, we introduce KaiS, a learning-based scheduling framework for such edge-cloud systems to improve the long-term throughput rate of request processing. First, we design a coordinated multi-agent actor-critic algorithm to cater to decentralized request dispatch and dynamic dispatch spaces within the edge cluster. Second, for diverse system scales and structures, we use graph neural networks to embed system state information, and combine the embedding results with multiple policy networks to reduce the orchestration dimensionality by stepwise scheduling. Finally, we adopt a two-time-scale scheduling mechanism to harmonize request dispatch and service orchestration, and present the implementation design of deploying the above algorithms compatible with native k8s components. Experiments using real workload traces show that KaiS can successfully learn appropriate scheduling policies, irrespective of request arrival patterns and system scales. Moreover, KaiS can enhance the average system throughput rate by 14.3% while reducing scheduling cost by 34.7% compared to baselines.

Session Chair

Lu Su (Purdue University, USA)

Session F-2

Edge Analytics

4:00 PM — 5:30 PM EDT
May 11 Tue, 4:00 PM — 5:30 PM EDT

AutoML for Video Analytics with Edge Computing

Apostolos Galanopoulos, Jose A. Ayala-Romero and Douglas Leith (Trinity College Dublin, Ireland); George Iosifidis (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

Video analytics constitute a core component of many wireless services that require processing of voluminous data streams emanating from handheld devices. Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) is a promising solution for supporting such resource-hungry services, but there is a plethora of configuration parameters affecting their performance in an unknown and possibly time-varying fashion. To overcome this obstacle, we propose an Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) framework for jointly configuring the service and wireless network parameters, towards maximizing the analytics' accuracy subject to minimum frame rate constraints. Our experiments with a bespoke prototype reveal the volatile and system/data-dependent performance of the service, and motivate the development of a Bayesian online learning algorithm which optimizes on-the-fly the service performance. We prove that our solution is guaranteed to find a near-optimal configuration using safe exploration, i.e., without ever violating the set frame rate thresholds. We use our testbed to further evaluate this AutoML framework in a variety of scenarios, using real datasets.

Edge-assisted Online On-device Object Detection for Real-time Video Analytics

Mengxi Hanyao, Yibo Jin, Zhuzhong Qian, Sheng Zhang and Sanglu Lu (Nanjing University, China)

Real-time on-device object detection for video analytics fails to meet the accuracy requirement due to limited resources of mobile devices while offloading object detection inference to edges is time-consuming due to the transference of video data over edge networks. Based on the system with both on-device object tracking and edge-assisted analysis, we formulate a non-linear time-coupled program over time, maximizing the overall accuracy of object detection by deciding the frequency of edge-assisted inference, under the consideration of both dynamic edge networks and the constrained detection latency. We then design a learning-based online algorithm to adjust the threshold for triggering edge-assisted inference on the fly in terms of the object tracking results, which essentially controls the deviation of on-device tracking between two consecutive frames in the video, by only taking previously observable inputs. We rigorously prove that our approach only incurs sub-linear dynamic regret for the optimality objective. At last, we implement our proposed online schema, and extensive testbed results with real-world traces confirm the empirical superiority over alternative algorithms, in terms of up to 36% improvement on detection accuracy with ensured detection latency.

SODA: Similar 3D Object Detection Accelerator at Network Edge for Autonomous Driving

Wenquan Xu (Tsinghua University, China); Haoyu Song (Futurewei Technologies, USA); LinYang Hou (Tsinghua University, China); Hui Zheng and Xinggong Zhang (Peking University, China); Chuwen Zhang (Tsinghua University, China); Wei Hu (Peking University, China); Yi Wang (Southern University of Science and Technology, China); Bin Liu (Tsinghua University, China)

Offloading the 3D object detection from autonomous vehicles to MEC is appealing because of the gains on quality, latency, and energy. However, detection requests lead to repetitive computations since the multitudinous requests share approximate detection results. It is crucial to reduce such fuzzy redundancy by reusing the previous results. A key challenge is that the requests mapping to the reusable result are only similar but not identical. An efficient method for similarity matching is needed to justify the use case. To this end, by taking advantage of TCAM's approximate matching capability and NMC's computing efficiency, we design SODA, a first-of-its-kind hardware accelerator which sits in the mobile base stations between autonomous vehicles and MEC servers. We design efficient feature encoding and partition algorithms for SODA to ensure the quality of the similarity matching and result reuse. Our evaluation shows that SODA significantly improves the system performance and the detection results exceed the accuracy requirements on the subject matter, qualifying SODA as a practical domain-specific solution.

EdgeSharing: Edge Assisted Real-time Localization and Object Sharing in Urban Streets

Luyang Liu (Google Research, USA); Marco Gruteser (WINLAB / Rutgers University, USA)

Collaborative object localization and sharing at smart intersections promises to improve situational awareness of traffic participants in key areas where hazards exist due to visual obstructions. By sharing a moving object's location between different camera-equipped devices, it effectively extends the vision of traffic participants beyond their field of view. However, accurately sharing objects between moving clients is extremely challenging due to the high accuracy requirements for localizing both the client position and positions of its detected objects. Therefore, we introduce EdgeSharing, a localization and object sharing system leveraging the resources of edge cloud platforms. EdgeSharing holds a real-time 3D feature map of its coverage region to provide accurate localization and object sharing service to the client devices passing through this region. We further propose several optimization techniques to increase the localization accuracy, reduce the bandwidth consumption and decrease the offloading latency of the system. The result shows that the system is able to achieve a mean vehicle localization error of 0.28-1.27 meters, an object sharing accuracy of 82.3%- 91.4%, and a 54.7% object awareness increment in urban streets and intersections. In addition, the proposed optimization techniques reduce bandwidth consumption by 70.12% and end-to-end latency by 40.09%.

Session Chair

Haisheng Tan (University of Science and Technology, China)

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