Session B-1

Vehicular Systems

2:00 PM — 3:30 PM EDT
May 11 Tue, 2:00 PM — 3:30 PM EDT

Towards Minimum Fleet for Ridesharing-Aware Mobility-on-Demand Systems

Chonghuan Wang, Yiwen Song, Yifei Wei, Guiyun Fan and Haiming Jin (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China); Fan Zhang (Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China)

The rapid development of information and communication technologies has given rise to mobility-on-demand (MoD) systems (e.g., Uber, Didi) that have fundamentally revolutionized urban transportation. One common feature of today's MoD systems is the integration of ridesharing due to its cost-efficient and environment-friendly natures. However, a fundamental unsolved problem for such systems is how to serve people's heterogeneous transportation demands with as few vehicles as possible. Naturally, solving such minimum fleet problem is essential to reduce the vehicles on the road to improve transportation efficiency. Therefore, we investigate the fleet minimization problem in ridesharing-aware MoD systems. We use graph-theoretic methods to construct a novel order graph capturing the complicated interorder shareability, each order's spatial-temporal features, and various other real-world factors. We then formulate the problem as a tree cover problem over the order graph, which differs from the traditional coverage problems. Theoretically, we prove the problem is NP-hard, and propose a polynomial-time algorithm with a guaranteed approximation ratio. Besides, we address the online fleet minimization problem, where orders arrive in an online manner. Finally, extensive experiments on a city-scale dataset from Shenzhen, containing 21 million orders from June 1st to 30th, 2017, validate the effectiveness of our algorithms.

Towards Fine-Grained Spatio-Temporal Coverage for Vehicular Urban Sensing Systems

Guiyun Fan, Yiran Zhao, Ziliang Guo, Haiming Jin and Xiaoying Gan (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China); Xinbing Wang (Shanghai Jiaotong University, China)

Vehicular urban sensing (VUS), which uses sensors mounted on crowdsourced vehicles or on-board drivers' smartphones, has become a promising paradigm for monitoring critical urban metrics. Due to various hardware and software constraints difficult for private vehicles to satisfy, for-hire vehicles (FHVs) are usually the major forces for VUS systems. However, FHVs alone are far from enough for fine-grained spatio-temporal sensing coverage, because of their severe distribution biases. To address this issue, we propose to use a hybrid approach, where a centralized platform not only leverages FHVs to conduct sensing tasks during their daily movements of serving passenger orders, but also controls multiple dedicated sensing vehicles (DSVs) to bridge FHVs' coverage gaps. Specifically, we aim to achieve fine-grained spatio-temporal sensing coverage at the minimum long-term operational cost by systematically optimizing the repositioning policy for DSVs. Technically, we formulate the problem as a stochastic dynamic program, and solve various challenges, including long-term cost minimization, stochastic demand with partial statistical knowledge, and computational intractability, by integrating distributionally robust optimization, primal-dual transformation, and second order conic programming methods. We validate the effectiveness of our methods using a real-world dataset from Shenzhen, China, containing 726,000 trajectories of 3848 taxis spanning overall 1 month in 2017.

Joint Age of Information and Self Risk Assessment for Safer 802.11p based V2V Networks

Biplav Choudhury (Virginia Tech, USA); Vijay K. Shah (Virginia Tech & Wireless@VT Lab, USA); Avik Dayal and Jeffrey Reed (Virginia Tech, USA)

Emerging 802.11p vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) networks rely on periodic Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) to disseminate time-sensitive safety-critical information, such as vehicle position, speed, and heading - that enables several safety applications and has the potential to improve on-road safety. Due to mobility, lack of global-knowledge and limited communication resources, designing an optimal BSM broadcast rate-control protocol is challenging. Recently, minimizing Age of Information (AoI) has gained momentum in designing BSM broadcast rate-control protocols. In this paper, we show that minimizing AoI solely does not always improve the safety of V2V networks. Specifically, we propose a novel metric, termed Trackability-aware Age of Information TAoI, that in addition to AoI, takes into account the self risk assessment of vehicles, quantified in terms of self tracking error (self-TE) - which provides an indication of collision risk posed by the vehicle. Self-TE is defined as the difference between the actual location of a certain vehicle and its self-estimated location. Our extensive experiments, based on realistic SUMO traffic traces on top of ns-3 simulator, demonstrate that TAoI based rate-protocol significantly outperforms baseline AoI based rate-protocol and default 10 Hz broadcast rate in terms of safety performance, i.e., collision risk, in all considered V2V settings.

π-ROAD: a Learn-as-You-Go Framework for On-Demand Emergency Slices in V2X Scenarios

Armin Okic (Politecnico di Milano, Italy); Lanfranco Zanzi (NEC Laboratories Europe & Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany); Vincenzo Sciancalepore (NEC Laboratories Europe GmbH, Germany); Alessandro E. C. Redondi (Politecnico di Milano, Italy); Xavier Costa-Perez (NEC Laboratories Europe, Germany)

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) is expected to become one of the main drivers of 5G business in the near future. Dedicated network slices are envisioned to satisfy the stringent requirements of advanced V2X services, such as autonomous driving, aimed at drastically reducing road casualties. However, as V2X services become more mission-critical, new solutions need to be devised to guarantee their successful service delivery even in exceptional situations, e.g. road accidents, congestion, etc. In this context, we propose π-ROAD, a deep learning framework to automatically learn regular mobile traffic patterns along roads, detect non-recurring events and classify them by severity level. π-ROAD enables operators to proactively instantiate dedicated Emergency Network Slices (ENS) as needed while re-dimensioning the existing slices according to their service criticality level. Our framework is validated by means of real mobile network traces collected within 400 km of a highway in Europe and augmented with publicly available information on related road events. Our results show that π-ROAD successfully detects and classifies non-recurring road events and reduces up to 30% the impact of ENS on already running services.

Session Chair

Falko Dressler (TU Berlin, Germany)

Session B-2

UAV Networks

4:00 PM — 5:30 PM EDT
May 11 Tue, 4:00 PM — 5:30 PM EDT

Enhanced Flooding-Based Routing Protocol for Swarm UAV Networks: Random Network Coding Meets Clustering

Hao Song, Lingjia Liu and Bodong Shang (Virginia Tech, USA); Scott M Pudlewski (Georgia Tech Research Institute, USA); Elizabeth Serena Bentley (AFRL, USA)

Existing routing protocols may not be applicable in UAV networks because of their dynamic network topology and lack of accurate position information. In this paper, an enhanced flooding-based routing protocol is designed based on random network coding (RNC) and clustering for swarm UAV networks, enabling the efficient routing process without any routing path discovery or network topology information. RNC can naturally accelerate the routing process, with which in some hops fewer generations need to be transmitted. To address the issue of numerous hops and further expedite routing process, a clustering method is leveraged, where UAV networks are partitioned into multiple clusters and generations are only flooded from representatives of each cluster rather than flooded from each UAV. By this way, the amount of hops can be significantly reduced. The technical details of the introduced routing protocol are designed. Moreover, to capture the dynamic network topology, the Poisson cluster process is employed to model UAV networks. Afterwards, stochastic geometry tools are utilized to derive the distance distribution between two random selected UAVs and analytically evaluate performance. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to prove the validation of performance analysis, demonstrate the effectiveness of our designed routing protocol, and reveal its design insight.

Experimental UAV Data Traffic Modeling and Network Performance Analysis

Aygün Baltaci (Airbus & Technical University of Munich, Germany); Markus Klügel, Fabien Geyer and Svetoslav Duhovnikov (Airbus, Germany); Vaibhav Bajpai and Jörg Ott (Technische Universität München, Germany); Dominic A. Schupke (Airbus, Germany)

Network support for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is raising an interest among researchers due to the strong potential applications. However, current knowledge on UAV data traffic is mainly based on conceptual studies and does not provide an in-depth insight on the data traffic properties. To close this gap, we present a measurement-based study analyzing in detail the Control and Non-payload Communication (CNPC) traffic produced by three different UAVs when communicating with their remote controller over 802.11 protocol. We analyze the traffic in terms of data rate, inter-packet interval and packet length distributions, and identify their main influencing factors. The data traffic appears neither deterministic nor periodic but bursty, with a tendency towards Poisson traffic. We further create an understanding on how the traffic of the investigated UAVs are internally generated and propose a model to analytically capture their traffic processes, which provides an explanation for the observed behavior. We implemented a publicly available UAV traffic generator "AVIATOR" based on the proposed traffic model and verified the model by comparing the simulated traces with the experimental results.

Physical Layer Secure Communications Based on Collaborative Beamforming for UAV Networks: A Multi-objective Optimization Approach

Jiahui Li (Jilin University, China); Hui Kang (JiLin University, China); Geng Sun, Shuang Liang and Yanheng Liu (Jilin University, China); Ying Zhang (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communications and networks are promising technologies in the forthcoming fifth-generation wireless communications. However, they have the challenges for realizing secure communications. In this paper, we consider to construct a virtual antenna array consists UAV elements and use collaborative beamforming (CB) to achieve the UAV secure communications with different base stations (BSs), subject to the known and unknown eavesdroppers on the ground. To achieve a better secure performance, the UAV elements can fly to optimal positions with optimal excitation current weights for performing CB transmissions. However, this leads to extra motion energy consumptions. We formulate a secure communication multi-objective optimization problem (MOP) of UAV networks to simultaneously improve the total secrecy rates, total maximum sidelobe levels (SLLs) and total motion energy consumptions of UAVs by jointly optimizing the positions and excitation current weights of UAVs, and the order of communicating with different BSs. Due to the complexity and NP-hardness of the formulated MOP, we propose an improved multi-objective dragonfly algorithm with chaotic solution initialization and hybrid solution update operators (IMODACH) to solve the problem. Simulation results verify that the proposed IMODACH can effectively solve the formulated MOP and it has better performance than some other benchmark approaches.

Statistical Delay and Error-Rate Bounded QoS Provisioning for 6G mURLLC Over AoI-Driven and UAV-Enabled Wireless Networks

Xi Zhang and Jingqing Wang (Texas A&M University, USA); H. Vincent Poor (Princeton University, USA)

Massive ultra-reliable and low latency communications (mURLLC) has been developed as a new and dominating 6G standard traffic service to support statistical delay and error-rate bounded quality-of-services (QoS) provisioning for real-time data-transmissions. Inspired by mURLLC, finite blocklength coding (FBC) has been proposed to upper-bound both delay and error-rate by using short-packet data communications. On the other hand, to solve the massive connectivity problem imposed by mURLLC, the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-enabled systems are developed by leveraging their deploying flexibility and high probability of establishing line-of-sight (LoS) wireless links while guaranteeing various QoS requirements. In addition, the age of information (AoI) has recently emerged as a new QoS performance metric in terms of information freshness. However, how to efficiently integrate and implement the above new techniques for statistical delay and error-rate bounded QoS provisioning over 6G standards has neither been well understood nor thoroughly studied. To overcome these challenges, we propose the statistical delay and error-rate bounded QoS provisioning schemes which leverage the AoI technique as a key QoS performance metric to efficiently support mURLLC over UAV-enabled 6G wireless networks in the finite blocklength regime. Specifically, first, we develop the UAV-enabled 3-D wireless networking models with wireless-link channels using FBC. Second, we build up the AoI-metric based modeling frameworks in the finite blocklength regime. Third, taking into account the peak AoI violation probability, we formulate and solve the AoI-driven ɛ-effective capacity maximization problems to support statistical delay and error-rate bounded QoS provisioning. Finally, we conduct the extensive simulations to validate and evaluate our developed schemes.

Session Chair

Enrico Natalizio (University of Lorraine/Loria, France)

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